78xx系列线性稳压器件 The 78xx (sometimes L78xx, LM78xx, MC78xx…) is a family of self-contained fixed linear voltage regulator integrated circuits. The 78xx family is commonly used in electronic circuits requiring a regulated power supply due to their ease-of-use and low cost. For ICs within the family, the xx is replaced with two digits, indicating the output voltage (for example, the 7805 has a 5-volt output, while the 7812 produces 12 volts). The 78xx line are positive voltage regulators: they produce a voltage that is positive relative to a common ground. There is a related line of 79xx devices which are complementary negative voltage regulators. 78xx and 79xx ICs can be used in combination to provide positive and negative supply voltages in the same circuit.

78xx ICs have three terminals and are commonly found in the TO-220 form factor, although they are available in surface-mount, TO-92, and TO-3 packages. These devices support an input voltage anywhere from around 2.5 volts over the intended output voltage up to a maximum of 35 to 40 volts depending on the model, and typically provide 1 or 1.5 amperes of current (though smaller or larger packages may have a lower or higher current rating).


78xx系列器件不需要外围的元器件就可以提供稳定的电压输出,使用起来非常简单,并且也节省板上面积。其它的稳压器也许会需要附加的元器件以设置输出电压值或者用于帮助稳压。 78xx系列的器件内置过流保护、过热保护以及短路保护电路,多数应用场合下非常可靠。


The input voltage must always be higher than the output voltage by some minimum amount (typically 2.5 volts). This can make these devices unsuitable for powering some devices from certain types of power sources (for example, powering a circuit that requires 5 volts using 6-volt batteries will not work using a 7805). As they are based on a linear regulator design, the input current required is always the same as the output current. As the input voltage must always be higher than the output voltage, this means that the total power (voltage multiplied by current) going into the 78xx will be more than the output power provided. The difference is dissipated as heat. This means both that for some applications an adequate heatsink must be provided, and also that a (often substantial) portion of the input power is wasted during the process, rendering them less efficient than some other types of power supplies. When the input voltage is significantly higher than the regulated output voltage (for example, powering a 7805 using a 24 volt power source), this inefficiency can be a significant issue. Buck converters may be preferred over 78xx regulators because they are more efficient and do not require heat sinks, but they are more expensive. Individual devices in the series[edit]

TS7805 linear voltage regulator in a TO-220 variant package with electrically isolated tab There are common configurations for 78xx ICs, including 7805 (5 V), 7806 (6 V), 7808 (8 V), 7809 (9 V), 7810 (10 V), 7812 (12 V), 7815 (15 V), 7818 (18 V), and 7824 (24 V) versions. The 7805 is the most common, as its regulated 5-volt supply provides a convenient power source for most TTL components.

型号 输出电压(V) 最小输入电压(V)
7805 +5 7.3
7806 +6 8.3
7808 +8 10.5
7810 +10 12.5
7812 +12 14.6
7815 +15 17.7
7818 +18 21.0
7824 +24 27.1

Less common are lower-power versions such as the LM78Mxx series (500 mA) and LM78Lxx series (100 mA) from National Semiconductor. Some devices provide slightly different voltages than usual, such as the LM78L62 (6.2 volts) and LM78L82 (8.2 volts) as well as the STMicroelectronics L78L33ACZ (3.3 volts)