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示波器 [2016/07/13 05:02]
gongyu
示波器 [2019/03/10 18:28]
gongyu [参考设计]
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-示波器,英文oscilloscope,​以前也称为oscillograph,​正式名字叫scope,​ CRO (阴极摄像管示波器),​或DSO (目前的数字示波器),​电子测量仪器的一种,能够观察固定变化的信号电压,​ 并将一个或多个信号的幅度以时间函数的方式进行二维显示,其它的信号比如声音或震动等可以转换成电压信号进行转换并显示。{{ :​440px-crt_oscilloscope.png |阴极射线管内部结构}} +===== 关于示波器 ===== 
-<WRAP centeralign>​**阴极射线管内部结构** </​WRAP>​ +示波器,英文oscilloscope,​ 以前也称为oscillograph,​ 正式名字叫scope,​ CRO (阴极摄像管示波器),​ 或DSO (现在的数字示波器), ​电子测量仪器的一种,能够观察固定变化的信号电压,​ 并将一个或多个信号的幅度以时间函数的方式进行二维显示,其它的信号比如声音或震动等可以转换成电压信号进行转换并显示。
-{{ :​oscilloscopetek475a.jpg |Tektronix公司推出的475A型便携式模拟示波器,上世纪70年代的主流仪器}} +
-<WRAP centeralign>​ Tektronix公司推出的475A型便携式模拟示波器,上世纪70年代的主流仪器 </​WRAP>​+
  
-示波器被用来观察电信号随时间的变化,并在屏幕上以校准好的标尺将电压和时间显示出来,并能够分析被观察的波形的参数比如幅度、频率、上升时间、时间间隔、失真等。现在的数字仪器都可以计算并直接显示这些参数。+{{ :​440px-crt_oscilloscope.png |阴极射线管内部结构}}<​WRAP centeralign>​**阴极射线管内部结构** </​WRAP>​
  
-{{ :picoscope6000cdlaptop.jpg |}} +{{ :oscilloscopetek475a.jpg |Tektronix公司推出的475A型便携式模拟示波器,上世纪70年代的主流仪器}}<WRAP centeralign> ​Tektronix公司推出475A型便携式模拟示波器,上世纪70年代的主流仪器 ​</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP centeralign>​**PicoScope公司生产基于USB的数字示波器** </​WRAP>​+ 
 +示波器被用来观察电信号随时间的变化,并在屏幕上以校准好的标尺将电压和时间显示出来,并能够分析被观察的波形的参数比如幅度、频率、上升时间、时间间隔、失真等。现在的数字仪器都可以计算并直接显示这些参数。
  
-The oscilloscope can be adjusted so that repetitive signals can be observed as a continuous shape on the screen. A storage oscilloscope allows single events to be captured by the instrument and displayed for a relatively long time, allowing observation of events too fast to be directly perceptible+{{ :​picoscope6000cdlaptop.jpg |}} <WRAP centeralign>​**PicoScope公司生产的基于USB的数字示波器** </​WRAP>​ 
-{{ :​handheld_oscilloscope_shs800.jpg |}} +  
-<WRAP centeralign>​**Siglent公司生产的手持式数字存储示波器** </​WRAP>​ +示波器通过调整可以将重复的信号连续地在屏幕上显示,存储示波器可以捕捉单次事件并以相对较长的时间进行显示,这样可以观察到不容易直接接收到的快速变化的事件。 
-Oscilloscopes are used in the sciences, medicine, engineering,​ and the telecommunications industry. General-purpose instruments are used for maintenance of electronic equipment and laboratory work. Special-purpose oscilloscopes may be used for such purposes as analyzing an automotive ignition system or to display the waveform of the heartbeat as an electrocardiogram.+{{ :​handheld_oscilloscope_shs800.jpg |}} <WRAP centeralign>​**Siglent公司生产的手持式数字存储示波器** </​WRAP>​
  
-Before the advent of digital electronics,​ oscilloscopes used cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as their display element (hence were commonly referred to as CROs) and linear amplifiers for signal processing. Storage oscilloscopes used special storage CRTs to maintain a steady display of a single brief signal. CROs were later largely superseded by digital storage oscilloscopes (DSOs) with thin panel displays, fast analog-to-digital converters and digital signal processors. DSOs without integrated displays (sometimes known as digitisers) are available at lower cost and use a general-purpose digital computer to process and display waveforms.+示波器被广泛用在科研、医疗、工程以及电信领域,通用的仪器被用在电子设备和实验室工作的维护中,专用的示波器可以用来比如分析汽车点火系统或在医疗中显示心跳的波形等。
  
-====功能和应用==== 
-===综述=== 
 {{ :​wtpc_oscilloscope-1.jpg |}} {{ :​wtpc_oscilloscope-1.jpg |}}
 <WRAP centeralign>​**通用的示波器** </​WRAP>​ <WRAP centeralign>​**通用的示波器** </​WRAP>​
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 ===探头=== ===探头===
 +
 +=====分类=====
 +=====主要厂商=====
 +=====关键指标=====
 +====模拟带宽====
 +====采样率====
 +====灵敏度====
 +====动态范围====
 +====存储深度====
 +
 +=====主要功能和使用=====
 +====探头====
 Open wire test leads (flying leads) are likely to pick up interference,​ so they are not suitable for low level signals. Furthermore,​ the leads have a high inductance, so they are not suitable for high frequencies. Using a shielded cable (i.e., coaxial cable) is better for low level signals. Coaxial cable also has lower inductance, but it has higher capacitance:​ a typical 50 ohm cable has about 90 pF per meter. Consequently,​ a one-meter direct (1X) coaxial probe will load a circuit with a capacitance of about 110 pF and a resistance of 1 megohm. Open wire test leads (flying leads) are likely to pick up interference,​ so they are not suitable for low level signals. Furthermore,​ the leads have a high inductance, so they are not suitable for high frequencies. Using a shielded cable (i.e., coaxial cable) is better for low level signals. Coaxial cable also has lower inductance, but it has higher capacitance:​ a typical 50 ohm cable has about 90 pF per meter. Consequently,​ a one-meter direct (1X) coaxial probe will load a circuit with a capacitance of about 110 pF and a resistance of 1 megohm.
  
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 A more-sophisticated probe includes a magnetic flux sensor (Hall effect sensor) in the magnetic circuit. The probe connects to an amplifier, which feeds (low frequency) current into the coil to cancel the sensed field; the magnitude of that current provides the low-frequency part of the current waveform, right down to DC. The coil still picks up high frequencies. There is a combining network akin to a loudspeaker crossover network. A more-sophisticated probe includes a magnetic flux sensor (Hall effect sensor) in the magnetic circuit. The probe connects to an amplifier, which feeds (low frequency) current into the coil to cancel the sensed field; the magnitude of that current provides the low-frequency part of the current waveform, right down to DC. The coil still picks up high frequencies. There is a combining network akin to a loudspeaker crossover network.
 +====耦合和极性====
 +====面板操作====
 +====扫描====
 +====触发====
 +====存储====
 +====参数测量====
 +====频谱分析====
 +
 +=====示波器的制作=====
 +====硬件====
 +====软件====
 +====参考设计案例====
 +
 +=====参考资料=====
 +====使用说明书====
 +====使用XYZ====
 +
 +=====使用技巧=====
  
 ====前面板控制==== ====前面板控制====
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 ====类型和型号==== ====类型和型号====
-Main article: Oscilloscope types 
-The following section is a brief summary of various types and models available. For a detailed discussion, refer to the other article. 
  
 ===阴极射线管示波器(CRO)=== ===阴极射线管示波器(CRO)===
-For more details on this topic, see Oscilloscope types § Cathode-ray oscilloscope. 
  
 {{ :​440px-lissajous-figur_1_zu_3_oszilloskop_.jpg |}} {{ :​440px-lissajous-figur_1_zu_3_oszilloskop_.jpg |}}
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 Analog scopes do not necessarily include a calibrated reference grid for size measurement of waves, and they may not display waves in the traditional sense of a line segment sweeping from left to right. Instead, they could be used for signal analysis by feeding a reference signal into one axis and the signal to measure into the other axis. For an oscillating reference and measurement signal, this results in a complex looping pattern referred to as a Lissajous curve. The shape of the curve can be interpreted to identify properties of the measurement signal in relation to the reference signal, and is useful across a wide range of oscillation frequencies. Analog scopes do not necessarily include a calibrated reference grid for size measurement of waves, and they may not display waves in the traditional sense of a line segment sweeping from left to right. Instead, they could be used for signal analysis by feeding a reference signal into one axis and the signal to measure into the other axis. For an oscillating reference and measurement signal, this results in a complex looping pattern referred to as a Lissajous curve. The shape of the curve can be interpreted to identify properties of the measurement signal in relation to the reference signal, and is useful across a wide range of oscillation frequencies.
- 
-===Dual-beam oscilloscope=== 
-The dual-beam analog oscilloscope can display two signals simultaneously. A special dual-beam CRT generates and deflects two separate beams. Although multi-trace analog oscilloscopes can simulate a dual-beam display with chop and alternate sweeps, those features do not provide simultaneous displays. (Real time digital oscilloscopes offer the same benefits of a dual-beam oscilloscope,​ but they do not require a dual-beam display.) The disadvantages of the dual trace oscilloscope are that it cannot switch quickly between the traces and it cannot capture two fast transient events. In order to avoid this problems a dual beam oscilloscope is used. 
- 
-===Analog storage oscilloscope=== 
-Trace storage is an extra feature available on some analog scopes; they used direct-view storage CRTs. Storage allows the trace pattern that normally decays in a fraction of a second to remain on the screen for several minutes or longer. An electrical circuit can then be deliberately activated to store and erase the trace on the screen. 
- 
-===Digital oscilloscopes=== 
-While analog devices make use of continually varying voltages, digital devices employ binary numbers which correspond to samples of the voltage. In the case of digital oscilloscopes,​ an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is used to change the measured voltages into digital information. 
  
 {{ :​440px-siglent_sds1304cfl.jpg |}} {{ :​440px-siglent_sds1304cfl.jpg |}}
 <WRAP centeralign>​ **A Siglent SDS1000 Series Oscilloscope. A modern low cost DSO.** </​WRAP>​ <WRAP centeralign>​ **A Siglent SDS1000 Series Oscilloscope. A modern low cost DSO.** </​WRAP>​
- 
-The digital storage oscilloscope,​ or DSO for short, is now the preferred type for most industrial applications,​ although simple analog CROs are still used by hobbyists. It replaces the electrostatic storage method used in analog storage scopes with digital memory, which can store data as long as required without degradation and with uniform brightness. It also allows complex processing of the signal by high-speed digital signal processing circuits.[3] 
  
 A standard DSO is limited to capturing signals with a bandwidth of less than half the sampling rate of the ADC (called the Nyquist limit). There is a variation of the DSO called the digital sampling oscilloscope that can exceed this limit for certain types of signal, such as high-speed communications signals, where the waveform consists of repeating pulses. This type of DSO deliberately samples at a much lower frequency than the Nyquist limit and then uses signal processing to reconstruct a composite view of a typical pulse. A similar technique, with analog rather than digital samples, was used before the digital era in analog sampling oscilloscopes. A standard DSO is limited to capturing signals with a bandwidth of less than half the sampling rate of the ADC (called the Nyquist limit). There is a variation of the DSO called the digital sampling oscilloscope that can exceed this limit for certain types of signal, such as high-speed communications signals, where the waveform consists of repeating pulses. This type of DSO deliberately samples at a much lower frequency than the Nyquist limit and then uses signal processing to reconstruct a composite view of a typical pulse. A similar technique, with analog rather than digital samples, was used before the digital era in analog sampling oscilloscopes.
  
 A digital phosphor oscilloscope (DPO) uses color information to convey information about a signal. It may, for example, display infrequent signal data in blue to make it stand out. In a conventional analog scope, such a rare trace may not be visible. A digital phosphor oscilloscope (DPO) uses color information to convey information about a signal. It may, for example, display infrequent signal data in blue to make it stand out. In a conventional analog scope, such a rare trace may not be visible.
- 
-===混合信号示波器=== 
-A mixed-signal oscilloscope (or MSO) has two kinds of inputs, a small number of analog channels (typically two or four), and a larger number of digital channels(typically sixteen). It provides the ability to accurately time-correlate analog and digital channels, thus offering a distinct advantage over a separate oscilloscope and logic analyser. Typically, digital channels may be grouped and displayed as a bus with each bus value displayed at the bottom of the display in hex or binary. On most MSOs, the trigger can be set across both analog and digital channels. 
- 
-===混合域示波器=== 
-In a mixed-domain oscilloscope (MDO) you have an additional RF input port that goes into a spectrum analyzer part.[dubious – discuss] It links those traditionally separate instruments,​ so that you can e.g. time correlate events in the time domain (like a specific serial data package) with events happening in the frequency domain (like RF transmissions). 
  
 ===手持式示波器=== ===手持式示波器===
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 <WRAP centeralign>​ **Siglent Handheld Oscilloscope SHS800 Series** </​WRAP>​ <WRAP centeralign>​ **Siglent Handheld Oscilloscope SHS800 Series** </​WRAP>​
  
-For more details on this topic, see Oscilloscope types § Handheld oscilloscopes. 
 Handheld oscilloscopes are useful for many test and field service applications. Today, a hand held oscilloscope is usually a digital sampling oscilloscope,​ using a liquid crystal display. Handheld oscilloscopes are useful for many test and field service applications. Today, a hand held oscilloscope is usually a digital sampling oscilloscope,​ using a liquid crystal display.
 Many hand-held and bench oscilloscopes have the ground reference voltage common to all input channels. If more than one measurement channel is used at the same time, all the input signals must have the same voltage reference, and the shared default reference is the "​earth"​. If there is no differential preamplifier or external signal isolator, this traditional desktop oscilloscope is not suitable for floating measurements. (Occasionally an oscilloscope user will break the ground pin in the power supply cord of a bench-top oscilloscope in an attempt to isolate the signal common from the earth ground. This practice is unreliable since the entire stray capacitance of the instrument cabinet will be connected into the circuit. Since it is also a hazard to break a safety ground connection, instruction manuals strongly advise against this practice.) Many hand-held and bench oscilloscopes have the ground reference voltage common to all input channels. If more than one measurement channel is used at the same time, all the input signals must have the same voltage reference, and the shared default reference is the "​earth"​. If there is no differential preamplifier or external signal isolator, this traditional desktop oscilloscope is not suitable for floating measurements. (Occasionally an oscilloscope user will break the ground pin in the power supply cord of a bench-top oscilloscope in an attempt to isolate the signal common from the earth ground. This practice is unreliable since the entire stray capacitance of the instrument cabinet will be connected into the circuit. Since it is also a hazard to break a safety ground connection, instruction manuals strongly advise against this practice.)
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 Other instruments convert the results of their measurements to a repetitive electrical signal, and incorporate an oscilloscope as a display element. Such complex measurement systems include spectrum analyzers, transistor analyzers, and time domain reflectometers (TDRs). Unlike an oscilloscope,​ these instruments automatically generate stimulus or sweep a measurement parameter. Other instruments convert the results of their measurements to a repetitive electrical signal, and incorporate an oscilloscope as a display element. Such complex measurement systems include spectrum analyzers, transistor analyzers, and time domain reflectometers (TDRs). Unlike an oscilloscope,​ these instruments automatically generate stimulus or sweep a measurement parameter.
  
-====历史==== 
-The Braun tube was known in 1897, and in 1899 Jonathan Zenneck equipped it with beam-forming plates and a magnetic field for sweeping the trace.[citation needed] Early cathode ray tubes had been applied experimentally to laboratory measurements as early as the 1920s, but suffered from poor stability of the vacuum and the cathode emitters. V. K. Zworykin described a permanently sealed, high-vacuum cathode ray tube with a thermionic emitter in 1931. This stable and reproducible component allowed General Radio to manufacture an oscilloscope that was usable outside a laboratory setting.[3] After World War II surplus electronic parts became the basis of revival of Heathkit Corporation,​ and a $50 oscilloscope kit made from such parts was a first market success. 
  
 ====参考资料==== ====参考资料====
-  * [[http://​www.tek.com/​learning/​oscilloscopes/​|XYZ of Oscilloscopes, ​Tektronix, ​64 page Tutorial]] +  * [[http://​www.tek.com/​learning/​oscilloscopes/​|XYZ of Oscilloscopes, ​Tek公司提供的64页关于示波器基础的教程]] 
-  * [[http://​www.rohde-schwarz-usa.com/​rs/​rohdeschwarz/​images/​Oscilloscope-Fundamentals_v1.1.pdf|Oscilloscope Fundamentals Primer, Rohde & Schwarz]] +  * [[http://​www.rohde-schwarz-usa.com/​rs/​rohdeschwarz/​images/​Oscilloscope-Fundamentals_v1.1.pdf|示波器基础, Rohde & Schwarz]] 
-  * [[http://​www.doctronics.co.uk/​scope.htm|Using an Oscilloscope]] +  * [[http://​www.doctronics.co.uk/​scope.htm|示波器的应用]] 
-  * [[http://​www.bbaba.altervista.org/​tecnica/​oscilloscope.php|Oscilloscope basic guide]] +  * [[http://​www.bbaba.altervista.org/​tecnica/​oscilloscope.php|示波器基本指南]] 
-  * [[http://​afrotechmods.com/​tutorials/​2011/​11/​27/​oscilloscope-tutorials/​|Oscilloscope tutorial videos]] +  * [[http://​afrotechmods.com/​tutorials/​2011/​11/​27/​oscilloscope-tutorials/​|示波器教学视频]] 
-  * [[http://​www.tiepie.com/​en/​classroom/​Measurement_basics/​Digital_Data_Acquisition.html|Digital Storage Oscilloscope measurement basics]] +  * [[http://​www.tiepie.com/​en/​classroom/​Measurement_basics/​Digital_Data_Acquisition.html|数字存储示波器测量基础]] 
-  * [[http://​www.etti.unibw.de/​labalive/​app/​scopedemo/​|Oscilloscope – online demo]]+  * [[http://​www.etti.unibw.de/​labalive/​app/​scopedemo/​|示波器在线演示]]
  
 ====适用于示波器的高速A/​D变换器==== ====适用于示波器的高速A/​D变换器====
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 ===Digilent Analog Discovery 2 产品简介=== ===Digilent Analog Discovery 2 产品简介===
  
-Digilent Analog Discovery 2 is a USB oscilloscope and multi-function instrument that allows users to measure, visualize, generate, record, and control mixed-signal circuits of all kinds. Developed in conjunction with Analog Devices and supported by Xilinx University Program, Analog Discovery 2 is small enough to fit in your pocket, but powerful enough to replace a stack of lab equipment, providing engineering students, hobbyists, and electronics enthusiasts the freedom to work with analog and digital circuits in virtually any environment,​ in or out of the lab. The analog and digital inputs and outputs can be connected to a circuit using simple wire probes; alternatively,​ the Analog Discovery ​BNC Adapter and BNC probes can be used to connect and utilize the inputs and outputs. Driven by the free WaveForms 2015 (Mac, Linux and Windows Compatible) software, Analog Discovery 2 can be configured to work as any one of several traditional instruments. ​+Digilent Analog Discovery 2 是一款基于USB的示波器/多功能仪器,用于测量、可视化、产生、录制以及控制所有种类的混合信号电路。模拟和数字信号的输入/输出可以通过简单的连线同待测的电路进行连接也可以通过提供的BNC适配器和BNC探头进行连接。
  
-For more information on the differences between Analog Discovery and Analog Discovery 2, please visit our resource center. +主要性能指标
-Features+  * 双通道USB数字示波器(1MΩ, ±25V, ​差分, 14-bit, 100Msample/​sec,​ 30MHz+带宽 ​使用Analog Discovery带的BNC适配板
-  * Two-channel ​USB digital oscilloscope ​(1MΩ, ±25V, ​differential, 14-bit, 100Msample/​sec,​ 30MHz+ ​bandwidth ​with the Analog Discovery BNC Adapter Board+  * 双通道任意函数发生器(±5V, 14-bit, 100Msample/​sec,​ 20MHz+带宽 ​使用Analog Discovery带的BNC适配板
-  * Two-channel arbitrary function generator ​(±5V, 14-bit, 100Msample/​sec,​ 20MHz+ ​bandwidth ​with the Analog Discovery BNC Adapter Board+  * 立体声音频放大器用以驱动外部的耳机或喇叭 
-  * Stereo audio amplifier to drive external headphones or speakers with replicated AWG signals +  * 16通道数字逻辑分析仪(3.3V CMOS, 100Msample/​sec) 
-  * 16-channel digital logic analyzer ​(3.3V CMOS, 100Msample/​sec) +  * 16通道模式发生器(3.3V CMOS, 100Msample/​sec) 
-  * 16-channel pattern generator ​(3.3V CMOS, 100Msample/​sec) +  * 16通道虚拟数字I/O包括按钮、开关、LEDs – 非常适用于逻辑训练应用 
-  * 16-channel virtual digital ​I/O including buttons, switches, and LEDs – perfect for logic training applications +  * 两个输入/输出数字触发信号用以连接多个设备(3.3V CMOS) 
-  * Two input/​output digital trigger signals for linking multiple instruments ​(3.3V CMOS) +  * 单通道电压表(AC, DC, ±25V) 
-  * Single channel voltmeter ​(AC, DC, ±25V) +  * 网络分析仪 ​– Bode, Nyquist, Nichols transfer diagrams of a circuit. Range: 1Hz to 10MHz 
-  * Network analyzer ​– Bode, Nyquist, Nichols transfer diagrams of a circuit. Range: 1Hz to 10MHz +  * 频谱分析仪 ​– power spectrum and spectral measurements (noise floor, SFDR, SNR, THD, etc.) 
-  * Spectrum Analyzer ​– power spectrum and spectral measurements (noise floor, SFDR, SNR, THD, etc.) +  * 数字总线分析仪(SPI, I²C, UART, 串行
-  * Digital Bus Analyzers ​(SPI, I²C, UART, Parallel+  * 两个可编程电源(0…+5V , 0…-5V). ​最大可输出电流以及功率取决于Analog Discovery 2的供电选择
-  * Two programmable power supplies ​(0…+5V , 0…-5V). ​The maximum available output current and power depend on the Analog Discovery 2 powering choice+    通过USB供电,可以每一路提供最大250mW或总计500mW 
-  * 250mW max for each supply or 500mW total when powered through USB +    通过外部电源适配器每一路可以提供最大700mA2.1W
-  * 700mA max or 2.1W max for each supply when using an external wall power supply+
  
 [[Analog Discovery 2 参考手册]] [[Analog Discovery 2 参考手册]]
  
 +[[基于树莓派的双通道高速ADC的设计]]